Zero-Emission Vehicles

DOA Goes Electric

DOA is doing its part to lower state greenhouse gas emissions and support Executive Orders 80, 246 and 271 along with 2021 energy legislation. Learn more about greenhouse gas emissions.


Zero-Emission Vehicles, also known as ZEVs, are vehicles that do not directly emit exhaust gas or other pollutants. ZEVs are battery powered and must be plugged in to be recharged (fully electric). Hybrid vehicles use both gas and electricity to operate and have both plug-in and non-plug-in options. Traditional gas vehicles are sometimes called ICE vehicles because they use Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) to operate.

Why Switch?

According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the greenhouse gas emissions associated with a ZEV over its lifetime are lower than those from an average gasoline-powered vehicle, even when accounting for manufacturing and electric charging. Lower greenhouse gases and fewer exhaust fumes means cleaner air and a cooler planet. The transportation sector contributes to 30% of all greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., making transportation the single largest contributor to climate change. 

Charging Electric Vehicles

Electric car ranges vary from about 100 miles up to 350 miles, and for users the primary concern is charging. There are three levels:

  • Level 1: This is the electricity that is available from the outlets in your house. It is roughly 120 volts. Charging this way is extremely slow (17-20 hours).
  • Level 2: Many houses also have 240-volt outlets to run clothes dryers and stoves. You can buy a home charging station and plug it into such an outlet. Chargins will take four to five hours using this method  
  • Level 3:  Many EVs offer a fast charge feature, usually as an option at the time of car purchase, allowing the battery to be charged at Level 3, or 440 volts — much faster than home charging (40 minutes). However, few of these fast chargers are available now.

Motor Fleet ZEV Plan EO 80 Updates 

2023 Updates

The state's telematics vendor, Geotab, developed a new EV Suitability Assessment (EVSA) tool, which proposed that approximately 10% of the fleet is suitable for replacement with an EV. The EVSA tool does not account for the availability of charging infrastructure.

MFM received all 75 Chevy Bolts ordered in 2022 and is working to assign the vehicles. As of October 2023, the current ZEV fleet assigned to state agencies is 72 vehicles, a 50% increase from the previous year.

Hybrid vehicles make up over 69% of MFM total vehicle purchases in FY 2023-24, as of October 2023. Nearly 550 vehicles of the 789 slated for replacement in 2023 will be replaced with hybrid vehicles.

Fully Electric Vehicles on State Contract


  • Mustang Mach-E
  • F-150 Lightning
  • E-Transit 350 Cargo Van (approx. 126-mile range)


  • Bolt (approx. 250-mile range)


  • Leaf S* (approx. 149-mile range)
  • Leaf Plus* (approx. 226-mile range)


  • Kia Niro EV* (approx. 239-mile range)


      * - currently unavailable

Hybrid Vehicles on State Contract


  • Ford Escape Hybrid
  • Ford Maverick
  • Ford F-150 Hybrid
  • Ford Police Interceptor Utility HEV


  • Hyundai IONIQ 5
  • Hyundai Palisade*
  • Hyundai Tuscon Plug-In Hybrid*
  • Hyundai Santa Fe Plug-In Hybrid*


  • Toyota Camry Hybrid*
  • Toyota Corolla Hybrid*


  • Kia Niro Hybrid*



      * - currently unavailable

The Triple Bottom Line: Economic, Environmental and Social Considerations

ZEV advantages

All-electric vehicles run on electricity only. They are propelled by one or more electric motors powered by rechargeable battery packs. EVs have several advantages over conventional vehicles:

  • Energy efficient: EVs convert over 77% of the electrical energy from the grid to power at the wheels. Conventional gasoline vehicles only convert about 12%–30% of the energy stored in gasoline to power at the wheels.
  • Environmentally friendly: EVs emit no tailpipe pollutants, although the power plant producing the electricity may emit them. Electricity from nuclear, hydro, solar, or wind-powered plants causes no air pollutants.
  • Performance benefits: Electric motors provide quiet, smooth operation and stronger acceleration and require less maintenance than internal combustion engines (ICEs).
  • Reduced energy dependence: Electricity is a domestic energy source.

(Source:, a resource provided by the U.S. Department of Energy)

ZEV disadvantages

  • Driving range: EVs have a shorter driving range than most conventional vehicles — although EV driving ranges are improving. Most EVs can travel more than 100 miles on a charge, and some can travel in excess of 200 or 300 miles depending on the model.
  • Recharge time: Fully recharging the battery pack can take 3 to 12 hours. Even a "fast charge" to 80% capacity can take 30 minutes.
  • Batteries for EVs are designed for extended life, and a study by Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory suggest these batteries may last 12 to 15 years in moderate climates and eight to 12 years in severe climates. However, these batteries are expensive, and replacing them may be costly if they fail.